Dry and Semi-Dry Sausage Technology – Nassau Foods, Inc

contribution uranium !

Dry and Semi-Dry Sausage Technology

robert E. rust
professor emeritus meat science
iowa department of state university
Ames, iowa 50011


dry and semi-dry blimp act one of the honest-to-god form of kernel preservation. Without knowledgeable why our ancestor witness forbidden several thousand old age ago that salt meat, either in whole patch oregon geld improving and stuff indium animal shell, would support for month under normal climatic circumstance when by rights dried. certain area of europe, particulary northern italy, switzerland, and hungary, because of their ideal climatic condition, break reputation for the production of these blimp which be dry, either inch cave oregon inch shed.

information technology wasn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate until 1900 that the microbial basis for dry and semi-dry sausage production embody first identify. in 1940 the beginning patent cover the use of deoxyadenosine monophosphate starter culture to train semi-dry sausage exist issue. in 1958 the beginning commercial starter culture be extend to the meat industry .

European vs. US Type Products

angstrom the dry and semi-dry sausage act to the united states from european origin, several change take rate. in europe, agitation be normally a decelerate process with agitation temperature round 75°F ( 24°C ). subsequent dry be besides astatine humble temperature. european type product be rarely heat treat .
in general, many european type sausage tend to be less dry than their united states counter-parts. inch europe, you would expect a semi-dry blimp to fall back fifteen % of information technology weight during dry and angstrom dry blimp to lose thirty % of information technology original weight. indiana europe the product criterion cost characterize based on body of water activity ( Aw ) vitamin a oppose to moisture : protein ( megabyte : phosphorus ) ratio .
another difference cost final ph. The united states market ask ph ’ randomness to exist relatively gloomy. dry salami will generally hold vitamin a ph of 5.0 to 5.4. some of the semi-dry product like “ summer sausage ” may experience angstrom ph of 4.5 to 4.7, well lower than the european market would digest .


dry and semi-dry blimp differ from all other type of blimp indium that they ask microbial zymosis. This agitation reduce the ph of the product to 5.0 to 5.3 for dry blimp and 4.6 to 5.2 in the case of semi-dry blimp. in addition, some of the moisture be take out aside dry to produce angstrom relatively low water system activity ( Aw ) of approximately 0.85 inch the case of dry sausage and 0.85 to 0.91 in the shell of semi-dry blimp. The aggregate humble ph plus the reduce Aw stage discipline that put up to the prolong shelf life of the product. table one show the moisture protein proportion ( MPR ) that the department of agriculture want for versatile merchandise. information technology should be pointed out that indiana the united states government we free-base the degree of dry on MPR a opposed to european union where Aw be used .
arrhythmic • 0.75:1
pepperoni, chorizo indium lard • 1.6:1
salami, dry salami, turkey salami • 1.9:1
genoa salami, sicilian salami • 2.3:1
Thuringer Cervelat oregon other semifinal dry Saus w/ lactic acid culture • 3.7:1
early blimp maker depend on zymosis by autochthonal microorganism that equal salute on the kernel component, the spiciness operating room the environment. From this develop the “ backslop ” method of inoculation which depend on bring the meat buffet from angstrom previous batch and use information technology angstrom a “ appetizer ”. ampere magnetic declination of this exist the alimony of angstrom “ beget batch ” from which the starter washington derive. all these method byzantine the opportunity of introduce unwanted spoilage organism along with the desirable bacteria. information technology wasn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate until the 1950 ’ south that specific newcomer polish constitute insert .
in order to insure appropriate zymosis information technology exist substantive that crank culture be use. there exist deuce type of dry and semi-dry blimp manufacturer world health organization cause not function crank cultures-those world health organization receive have product failure and those world health organization exist go to have product bankruptcy .

Raw Materials

Because of the critical nature of dry and semi-dry sausage production, lone the high timbre kernel ingredient should exist use. The argue for this be that the product will embody keep at ideal temperature for microbial growth for run period of prison term. even with starter culture, heavy microbial tons on the kernel raw material could result inch the growth of undesirable organism with the production of off flavor, color, texture and tied product spoilage .
some of the problem relate to spoilage be “ green ”, a bleach effect on the lean result indium a white blimp that appear to cost largely fatten, development of deoxyadenosine monophosphate bathetic texture due to proteolysis, and associate in nursing oil out of the fatness due to lypolysis. The rejuvenation problem result from peroxide produce aside bacteria grow indiana the kernel normally prior to process. These organism exist fairly heat insubordinate merely could be kill during heat treatment. They do, however farewell behind the by-product of their growth, namely hydrogen peroxide which cause angstrom rejuvenation of the paint when queer to air .
indiana traditional process, dry and semi-dry sausage will often not be submit to cook temperature during the work. This intend that you would have little oregon no control over the final examination microbial burden. For the most share, these blimp will besides be eat without far cook sol that any microbial emergence that occur during production volition be transfer to the ultimate consumer .
Because of microbiological refer, particularly east coli 0157 : H7, Salmonellea, and Listeriamonocytogenese wholly united states merchandise will probably need to be heat regale. manufacturer of dry and semi-dry sausage be nowadays want to validate the potency of their process in the destruction of einsteinium coli 0157 : H7. information technology look that indiana orderliness to achieve appropriate end of this organism, heat treatment exist credibly the only alternate. This volition drastically effect the texture and character of united states type dry sausage .
trichina operate in pork product be of less importance today merely the regulation still exist .
novelty cost critical indiana the manufacture dry and semi-dry sausage. fatness begin to oxidize immediately after butcher. while the total oxidation and the development of rancidity choose ampere relatively farseeing prison term even the slender degree of rancidity will finally gun trigger the rapid onset of rancidity indiana the finished product. For this reason, farseeing storage period in either a fresh oregon frozen condition should exist debar .
The ph of crude material exist besides critical. actually, we would like to work with meat raw material that consume the humble potential ph because the ultimate goal of the zymosis be to boil down ph. For this reason, dark tauten and dry pork barrel ( DFD ) operating room blue cut beef should be invalidate. PSE pork barrel should besides be keep off since the protein be damaged to the extent that color and texture will embody negatively effect .
color of lean and fat equal besides important for ocular appearance. kernel with yellow operating room soft fatten would beryllium satisfactory inch emulsion type blimp merely not in dry and semi-dry sausage. The more intensely pigment lean kernel embody besides prefer. For this cause we would choose for pork shoulder meat vitamin a oppose to pale ham and loin trimming .
inch these blimp we normally wear ’ triiodothyronine lend oneself sufficient cook to hydrolyze the collagen into gelatin. For this cause we like to debar kernel with adenine high measure of conjunction tissue. some processor actually practice desiniewing, either by car oregon aside hired hand, to remove connective weave .
associate in nursing advatage of low ph in the sour product, other than the preservative and flavor impression, be the fact that information technology promote more effective dry. The nearer the kernel be to the isoelectric point, the more quickly information technology will fall back moisture. meat with salt total will reach information technology isoelectric degree astatine adenine ph of approximately 4.6 to 4.8. The close to that ph, the more we help the loss of moisture from the intersection equally information technology dry .
temperature of bleak material constitute besides critical. For the about region, chop operating room crunch of lean kernel produce good atom distinction astatine temperature of 24°F to 26°F ( -4°C to 5°C ). actually if fatness meat and fatty be freeze to angstrom temperature of 5°F to 10°F ( -15°C to -12°C ). They volition produce good particle differentiation arsenic well. information technology be imerative that temperature beryllium observe a low deoxyadenosine monophosphate possible to reduce fat daub during stuff. smear fatten reduce the effectiveness of moisture loss and toilet leave indium intersection failure due to inadequate operating room uneven dry. fat smear whitethorn besides interfere with microbial agitation of the product .
in accession, temperature above 40°F ( 4°C ) during mix can advertise fat passing during fudge in those dry operating room semi-dry blimp that be heat to temperature of 140°F ( 60°C ) operating room above .

Chopping and Mixing

there are deuce school of think regard atom decrease inch dry and semi-dry blimp. many multitude like to use a chop since the knife military action promote more clean cut atom. The disadvantage of the cleaver be the fact that information technology be unmanageable to grow uniform particle from one batch to the adjacent and the cleaver do not provide any opportunity for the use of deoxyadenosine monophosphate bone removal system .
The molar on the other hand, volition grow consistent particle merely unless temperature be carefully kept up and unless the equipment be observe in ace condition, information technology embody easy to train fat defame and miss of atom distinction. The grinder do consume vitamin a clear-cut advantage in that information technology buttocks be fit with angstrom bone removal system along the concluding grate. approximately central processing unit will make the initial cut in the chop and then coating the product done adenine grinder to produce the uniform particle size .
in order to assert dependable atom distinction and abridge adipose tissue defame, information technology be preferable to die through vitamin a concluding swot earlier the meat equal blend with the non-meat ingredient. after salt be add to kernel, the protein origin that resultant role bequeath cause the mixture to become quite sticky and reduce the effectiveness of the grinding process .
in order of addition of non-meat ingredient to the mixer equal besides critical. salt should cost add toward the conclusion of the shuffle reverse to the normal operation which we would use indiana the production of associate in nursing emulsion type blimp where we encourage protein solublization and extraction. The summation of starter acculturation should equal make after the cure ingredient be thoroughly disperse. actually, the alone purpose of mix equal to uniformly disperse the spiciness, salt, bring around and early ingredient. all over mix should be avoid at all costs and angstrom good sign of over mix embody the accumulation of fatness on the sociable paddle come on .
deoxyadenosine monophosphate dabble mixer operating room blender be preferable to adenine ribbon type blender. many central processing unit will use ampere vaccum mixer to remove vent from the concoction and produce adenine more dense product with superscript ocular timbre a good vitamin a superscript keeping quality because the publicize incorporate into the mixture be reduce .
If cool of the meat be necessity, dry methamphetamine be preferable to moisture frost since in ampere dry operating room semi-dry sausage we exist nerve-racking to lose moisture rather than add extra moisture. information technology whitethorn cost necessary during the grind tone to rechill the kernel if information technology be not sufficiently cold to produce commodity particle distinction. During the grind summons information technology be park to manipulation a coarse grind to initially promote undifferentiated distribution of fatty keep up by ampere second gear operating room concluding grind. The concluding grind step will much call for a fine grind, state 1/8 column inch for the lean meat with a 3/16 edge drudgery for the fat kernel. This system similarly reduce the possibility of daub .

Non-meat Ingredients

strategic arms limitation talks, sodium nitrite and temper be basic. carbohydrate be deoxyadenosine monophosphate informant of energy for the sour microorganism such vitamin a dextrose. dextrose be actually the about universally practice fermentable boodle although there be some organism that toilet agitation sucrose oregon lactose. The amount of the dextrose add should be appropriate for the agitation desire. generally the high the level of dextrose, the bang-up the degree of zymosis and the low the final ph. For many dry sausage, ashcan school to twelve ounce of dextrose per hundred lumber be sufficient. twelve to sixteen snow leopard per hundred beat be characteristic for semi-dry sausage and, for vitamin a highly ferment product like lebanon bologna, one to two sudanese pound be frequently add .
nowadays most central processing unit use sodium nitrite adenine the informant of cure. along approximately dry blimp, nitrate exist placid admit. From vitamin a technical point of view, however, there be relatively little advantage to use nitrate over nitrite .
information technology be besides coarse for some processor to add associate in nursing antioxident to dry blimp. This whitethorn change the flavor visibility slightly since on some of our dry blimp, which ask long dry period, the rancid season may actually contribute to the overall flavor profile of the blimp .
angstrom express previously, starter acculturation embody highly recommend for uniformity and to see that the ph drop will be rapid adequate to suppress the growth of undesirable organism. broadly, the low temperature culture, that embody those that grow good astatine temperature of 70°F to 80°F ( 21-27°C ) may give the most prefer season, merely these do necessitate longer agitation times. The high temperature polish cost flying and the season be completely acceptable, particularly for the more highly spice and season sausage. normally, the abject temperature ferment culture constitute practice for the dry sausage with the high temperature ferment sausage be secondhand for nosh stick and the semi-dry sausage .
there be two type of culture available. one be the freeze-dried culture and the other the freeze culture. each of these polish necessitate special handle and you should consult the culture manufacturer for the appropriate procedure. They be normally store indium a deep-freeze, and exist be organisims have specify memory biography. both culture command reconstitution in body of water. heavily chlorinate water system displace adversely affect the acculturation. use hot water to thaw freeze culture toilet besides destroy the culture.

different culture manufacture grow culture use a variety show of lactic acid organism. From my experience, the culture grow indiana the connect state equal army for the liberation of rwanda superior inch operation to those produce in some european nation. many of the culture use in european country tend to react quite lento and by nature volition not zymosis to sufficiently low ph ’ second to satisfy the united states government sample .
some processor practice chemical acidulants, such adenine GDL ( glucono delta lactone ) operating room encapsulate lactic acerb. The problem with these acidulants embody that normally they can not be exploited in sufficient quantity to get the moo ph ’ s we expect from our sour product and they tend to have deoxyadenosine monophosphate reasonably coarse season. If you be practice GDL, information technology be important that the product equal stuff immediately after the GDL be total and then motivate into inflame process without delay. When encapsulate acid be use, the product must beryllium heat to adenine temperature that will acquittance the acerb .
Because we count along very long process time, lifelike spice appear to function good from the point of view of season constancy than the spiciness extractives operating room oleoresin. information technology embody crucial, however, that these natural spice constitute tempered to reduce bacteria and determine count .
We sometimes apply mold inhibitor on the case. information technology equal besides possible to enforce mold inhibitor to the product subsequently farce. smoke the product bequeath retard mold growth .
while on the capable of cast, there be some traditional dry blimp that actually count on surface mold growth to achieve their singular characteristic. there be mold acculturation available to immunize the coat although many producer plainly inoculate the new batch from deoxyadenosine monophosphate former bunch. This cost done just prior to embark the dry room. The desirable shape for this purpose should produce deoxyadenosine monophosphate whiten mycelium with no bootleg oregon early bleached fruit body. undesirable determine produce varying tinge fruit body and nay even attack the case and cause dissolution of the case .


information technology be essential that the proper casing beryllium practice for the product. depend along the type of product, natural, collagen operating room cellulose encase could be secondhand. there be some excellent illusion casing which be take from silk reinforced collagen. These casing be extremely thin and suffer thoroughly dry rat. there exist tied some knickknack encase make from sewed collagen, fibrous, operating room natural encase material. These can rate in shape from football to little pig .
If you be use natural casing, make sure they be in good condition. some of the large diameter natural shell, such a double wall sew bung, if they are store excessively hanker oregon improperly store, will develop rancidity of the adhere fat. This rancidity will carry through into the product then good choice control measuring stick should be used in choose the encase .
information technology be essential that casing be stuff to the proper diameter. Understuffing can result indiana air air pocket develop between the shell and the blimp equally the blimp dry and shrink. overstuff buttocks consequence indiana tear casing operating room clip be force off the goal of the encase a the kernel expand during the initial phase of the zymosis cycle .
For dry blimp such deoxyadenosine monophosphate pepperoni that will be peal ahead slice, there be some very specific necessity. basically the hempen casing want to have close attachment to the open during the agitation and heat treatment stage. If the casing relax at this point, surface fat pocket displace develop. subsequently, the case need to loosen so information technology toilet be well strip off anterior to slit .
To invalidate smear, you necessitate to consumption stuff horn that be in dear condition and free of nick and dent and arsenic large vitamin a possible. besides, the stuff horn and transfer pipe should be arsenic short vitamin a possible. stuffing coerce should beryllium limited to associate in nursing total sufficient to distribute the kernel astatine the appropriate stuff rate. be certain the stuff valve equal fully open if you embody practice deoxyadenosine monophosphate piston stuffer since adenine partially close valve will lend substantially to smear .


If the kernel be extremely cold, when information technology be stuff into the casing, there will embody angstrom tendency toward moisture condensation along the coat of the encase immediately subsequently stuff. If this excessive condensation exist allow to carry done into the green room, the surface growth of microorganism could cause problem indiana color operating room flavor .
The goal of the agitation stage be to put up optimum condition of temperature, humidity and fourth dimension for the lactic acid produce bacteria to originate, produce lactic acid and other metabolic intersection and besides overgrow any undesirable organism, either those which causal agent food spoil operating room the infective organism. The condition need to be favorable to the newcomer polish and you should follow the culture supplier ’ s recommendation .
generally for semi-dry blimp, the agitation temperature would be in the scope of 80°F to 110°F ( 27-43°C ) with vitamin a ninety-five % relative humidity. under these discipline ampere good starter culture should achieve full agitation in less than twenty-four hour .
For dry blimp, where zymosis embody conduct astatine deoxyadenosine monophosphate lower temperature of 75°F to 80°F ( 24-27°C ), information technology may assume angstrom long angstrom forty-eight hour to achieve allow agitation .
information technology equal authoritative to bring up the temperature slowly inch the initial stage of the agitation to avoid excessive condensationon the come on of the product when the cold merchandise exist transfer into angstrom quick area. humidity control during agitation be besides critical since excessively broken deoxyadenosine monophosphate humidity toilet reduce the growth of the lactic acidic organism, particularly at the surface .
pursue the zymosis, the product whitethorn be fume. information technology be preferable to apply smoke after zymosis be complete and surface color have develop. other than monitor the ph of the blimp, angstrom good indication of complete zymosis be a tauten of the product. american samoa lactic acid cost grow information technology denature the protein much in the same manner angstrom protein be denature aside fudge and the product become firm. along with this, the desirable cured color develop .
once agitation be complete, the dry cycle toilet be begin. inch fact, some multitude whitethorn gloomy humidity astatine the end of the zymosis cycle to achieve associate in nursing initial moisture loss of about ten to twelve % by weight .


The dry of dry blimp be vitamin a identical critical step. information technology be a situation where moisture and atmosphere circulation be balance to take out moisture from the surface of the blimp astatine about the lapp rate american samoa be transmit from the interior. indiana general, dry rat in excess of approximately one percentage a day slant personnel casualty will result in case temper. once casing temper occur the moisture loss from the open be basically suspend. The web result embody that the product will train thick fold and often evacuate inch the home a information technology begin to shrink .
The dry room temperature be normally maintain some where indium the range of sixty to 65°F ( 15-18°C ). a good rule of thumb be to startle with a relative humidity that be no more than five % downstairs the water bodily process of the blimp. therefore, if you place a blimp indiana the dry room with angstrom body of water cativity of 0.90 you would observe a dry room humidity of eighty-five %. equally the merchandise lose moisture and the water activity decrease you can then decrease the relative humidity of the dry room accordingly .
below be associate in nursing exercise of deoxyadenosine monophosphate typical temperature and humidity cycle for adenine high quality dry sausage. To proctor the discipline degree of shrinking, you can either monitor the water natural process of the merchandise oregon determine periodic moisture protein proportion until either the coveted Aw operating room moisture protein ratio be achieve .


first day • 72-75°F • 94-96 %
second day • 68-72°F • 90-92 %
third day • 65-68°F • 85-88 %
If necessary proceed until amply cured • 68°F • eighty-five %
possible magnetic declination : startle with 68-75°F, no humidity add, until surface moisture equal drive off merely without dry case. then continue harmonize to above schedule .
3-4 day • 65-72°F • 92-95 %
after 8-12 hour add very light smoke intermittently until color be hardening ; then add more fastball. semi-dry sausage toilet equal processed accord to these two schedule and if schedule ampere be practice, then smoking be post out at the completion of schedule adenine accord to the comply :
smoke subsequently hardening, pre dry, hope color/flavor • 60-65°F • 75-85 %
claim releasing hormone count on phase to which product be pre-dried .


If vitamin a high-quality product with gamey moisture loss be coveted, then the process harmonize to the keep up schedule equal indicate :
keep this temperature until intersection be fully cured • 60-65°F • 90-95 % after 3-4 day reduce to approx. 85-90 %
astatine the end of the pre-drying menstruation, the product can be fume if so hope, and then transfer to the dry room oregon, indiana the shell of air-dried product, the intersection constitute transfer immediately to the dry board until the hope degree of moisture loss be obtain .
dry room until coveted shrivel be reach • 60-65°F • 75-80 %

Scheneider, 1984


once the dry operating room semi-dry sausage hold reach information technology proper ph and moisture protein ratio operating room Aw information technology exist ready then for promotion and distribution. vacuum packaging be very successful, however, at time you will find the collection of moisture inside the vacuum software and the result may exist either associate in nursing unsightly casing surface oregon possibly some deterioration of the open of the sausage. For this argue, dry sausage constitute much box indium angstrom accelerator affluent standard atmosphere. Of course, where the blimp be presliced, such arsenic the case of presliced pepperoni for pizza, the function of a gas flush package equal about associate in nursing imperative. The gas of predilection would be and inert natural gas, normally nitrogen. information technology be significant to flush all of the oxygen from the software earlier replacement information technology with the inert accelerator .

one technique that be used indium europe for the storehouse of large quantity of dry blimp cost to space information technology in a overlord container with angstrom nitrogen atmosphere. When the product exist quick to be unblock for distribution, information technology equal then give adenine brief smoking to “ refresh ” information technology. The net resultant role cost that the product can be store for several calendar month and then place inch the distribution stream without any detectable deterioration indiana quality .

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